Dopo non avrai più paura di niente! (Italian Edition)
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But please let the others live, life is, roughly speaking, their only luxury. Even more so that the carcass is already rather alert. We are dying for some ideas, well okay, but a slow death; well okay, but a slow death. E quando ti troverai in mano quei fiori appassiti al sole di un aprile ormai lontano, li rimpiangerai. The song was extremely popular and was covered by many other Italian artists. Quella che di notte stabilisce il prezzo alle tue voglie. The song was inspired by a poem of the same name by Umberto Saba set in the port zone of Trieste. Translation notes: 1.
In Italy, pensioners receive their checks on the 27th of every month. In the districts where the sun of the good Lord gives not its rays, it already has too many commitments warming the people of other neighborhoods. Where did the good old days go, by Jove, when to practice the craft still required a bit of a calling? There will be joy even in agony with strong wine. Old professor, what do you go seeking in that street door? Perhaps she who alone can teach you a lesson, she who by day you scornfully call public wife, she who by night sets the price for your desires.
If you will think, if you will judge as a righteous townsman, you'll condemn them to 50, years plus expenses; but if you will understand, if you will search them through and through, even if they are not lilies they are always children, victims of this world. Attraverso il buio Giovanna d'Arco precedeva le fiamme cavalcando nessuna luna per la sua corazza nessun uomo nella sua fumosa notte al suo fianco. Della guerra sono stanca ormai al lavoro di un tempo tornerei a un vestito da sposa o qualcosa di bianco per nascondere questa mia vocazione al trionfo ed al pianto.
As with the latter song, the arrangement was tweaked by Gian Piero Reverberi for its inclusion on Canzoni , but most notably the album version deletes the final verse seen above. Leonard Cohen text for Joan of Arc: Now the flames they followed Joan of Arc as she came riding through the dark; no moon to keep her armour bright, no man to get her through this very smoky night. She said, "I'm tired of the war, I want the kind of work I had before, a wedding dress or something white to wear upon my swollen appetite.
And deep into his fiery heart he took the dust of Joan of Arc, and high above the wedding guests he hung the ashes of her wedding dress. It was deep into his fiery heart he took the dust of Joan of Arc, and then she clearly understood if he was fire, oh then she must be wood. I saw her wince, I saw her cry, I saw the glory in her eye. Myself I long for love and light, but must it come so cruel, and oh so bright? Through the darkness Joan of Arc rode, keeping ahead of the flames, no moon for her armor, no man by her side in her smoky night.
I spied you riding every day, and to hear you this way, now I know what I want - to win over a heroine so cold, to embrace some of that pride. And in the depths of his red-hot heart he took Joan of Arc to envelop her, and there up high in front of the people he hung up the useless ashes of her white dress. Even I would like light and love, but if it arrives must it always be so cruel and glaring? Non tutti nella capitale sbocciano i fiori del male, qualche assassinio senza pretese lo abbiamo anche noi in paese. Qualche assassinio senza pretese lo abbiamo anche noi qui in paese.
Ma la sua voglia troppo viva subito gli esauriva, in quattro baci e una carezza l'ultima giovinezza. In quattro baci e una carezza l'ultima giovinezza. Misero tutto sotto sopra senza trovare un soldo ma solo un mucchio di cambiali e di atti giudiziari. Ma solo un mucchio di cambiali e di atti giudiziari. Allora presi dallo sconforto e dal rimpianto del morto, si inginocchiaron sul poveruomo chiedendogli perdono. Si inginocchiaron sul poveruomo chiedendogli perdono. Quando i gendarmi sono entrati piangenti li han trovati fu qualche lacrima sul viso a dargli il paradiso.
Fu qualche lacrima sul viso a dargli il paradiso. E quando furono impiccati volarono fra i beati qualche beghino di questo fatto fu poco soddisfatto. Qualche beghino di questo fatto fu poco soddisfatto. Both men considered compassion and forgiveness the most powerful human forces for good, reflected in this song by the killers' admittance to Heaven after they genuinely shed tears of remorse for their crime.
Not only in the capital do flowers of evil bloom. Some modest killing even we have in the village. Some modest killing even we have here in the village. His head was all white but his heart, still not tired, returned to him to throb fast for a young girl. It returned to him to throb fast for a young girl.
Level 1: Love and Cuisine
But his desire, too lively, quickly exhausted in four kisses and a caress his final youthfulness. In four kisses and a caress, his final youthfulness. When his hand she held, he responded to her, sad for being poor, flat broke. Paperback , pages. Published June 30th by Piemme first published August 3rd More Details Barcelona, Catalonia Spain.
Other Editions 7. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about So che ci sei , please sign up.
Will there be a sequel??? See 1 question about So che ci sei…. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Copy provided by author in exchange for an honest review What I love about this great reading community is discovering new authors. Elisa Gioia happens to fall in this category. When I first started reading romance books, I tended to stay away from love triangles and angsty story lines but as I continued to read more books in this particular genre, I find myself being drawn to stories with the angst.
Gioia has me hooked with this angsty romance love affair. How Copy provided by author in exchange for an honest review What I love about this great reading community is discovering new authors. How can one woman be hooked to two men? But what happens when the ex from her past makes an appearance in her life and shakes things up that could disrupt her relationship with the man who truly sees her?
Will this heroine be able to distinguish the love of then to the love of now? Is there ever such thing as uncomplicated love story? The Hook is one those stories that takes you on a journey that is filled with ups and downs. You will get frustrated at Gioia but at the same time understand her confusion and hesitation. Life is about making mistakes and learning from them and so Gioia will discover that love and life is all about taking a chance and finding the right person to get hooked on. Although, this book ends with somewhat a cliffy ending, the author leaves readers hopeful and satisfied for Gioia and her choice.
Elisa Gioia View all 5 comments. Sep 01, Ilaria rated it really liked it. So che ci sei racconta la storia di Gioia,una giovane donna reduce dalla fine di una storia d'amore durata anni e finita malissimo. Delusa, con il cuore spezzato e il morale a pezzi, Gioia viene aiutata dalla sua strampalata famiglia e dalle sue amiche di sem So che ci sei racconta la storia di Gioia,una giovane donna reduce dalla fine di una storia d'amore durata anni e finita malissimo.
Durante il viaggio Gioia si trova immischiata in una crisi di lavoro che tenta disperatamente di risolvere mentre le sue amiche si danno al karaoke. Ma a volte la vita ci fa delle sorprese e Gioia lo scopre quando ritrova Christian nell'ufficio in cui lavora Quando incontra Christian la situazione si complica, ma lui riesce a conquistarla pian piano. It's definitely tamer contemporary romance than I'm used to, but that aside I did have some issues with the story. The premise was great. Gioia was getting out a long relationship with her rocker boyfriend who had been cheating on her.
To get over him she throws herself into her work and it was then that she meets Christian who is a businessman and the nephew of her boss Sabrina. I know that the book was translated to English from Italian and I'm thinking that probably the essence of the story was lost in the translation. And all this in just the Prologue of the book! Now I don't mind some references to place the book in the specific era, but the books that I love most usually transcends time where there are only a few of these references.
However this book just seem like it puts it in my face. I also thought the book was a bit wordy. I'm sure that the original story in Italian was beautiful, but I think when it is translated to our guttural English most of those beautiful words are lost to us.
The book I read was about pages and I really felt that about a good pages could've been removed and the story would've been a tighter, cleaner and more engaging story. I did see some spark of brilliance in parts of the book but I felt it was crowded out by too many words. I also really didn't feel too much chemistry between Gioia and her old boyfriend, Francesco or between Gioia and Christian.
I'm wondering if this is because I'm used to a sexier read and I'm not used to reading a book that is more subtle in that area. Jun 30, CrazyForRomance rated it really liked it Shelves: new-adult , contemporary-romance , belloroserose-e-mezzo. Se Gioia potesse cancellare la cronologia della sua storia con Matteo non esiterebbe a cliccare con tutta la forza.
E non dimentichiamo la sua ossessione per WhatsApp: questo continuo osservare gli ultimi accessi.. Gioia vorrebbe solo essere amata. A Barcellona. E poi.. Il miracolo. Christian Kelly travolge la vita di Gioia in pochissimo tempo. Destino vuole che lui sia il salvatore del suo sudatissimo e meritato lavoro, dalla furia di Sabrina, capo e regina dei ghiacci. E dopo una serata, uno scontro o forse il secondo..
Ah, dimenticavo.. Se il piano di Bea per farlo ingelosire funzionasse fin troppo bene? Non tanto per l'aspetto fisico quanto per infilare un disastro dietro l'altro. Consigliato a chi crede che l'amore sia ripetitivo fino alla nausea ovviamente rientro nella categoria : ci incontriamo, ci piacciamo, magari finiamo a letto e poi? Ma mi chiedo E in questo libro l'autrice ci riesce in pieno.
Attendo con ansia il seguito. Dec 18, Alice rated it it was amazing. Gioia sta cercando di dimenticare il suo ex, Matteo Perri, che l'ha tradita e ha fatto crollare tutte le sue certezze. Adesso deve ricominciare da capo, ma non sa come fare. Ed ecco che, durante un viaggio a Barcellona con le sue amiche, incontra Christian Kelly, bello da morire..
Beh, che dire?! Ha Gioia sta cercando di dimenticare il suo ex, Matteo Perri, che l'ha tradita e ha fatto crollare tutte le sue certezze. Ha superato le mie aspettative? Lettura super consigliata! Una delle mie letture preferite del Sep 11, Lily Pis rated it liked it. Una lettura molto molto molto scorrevole, divertente, carinissima! La storia cattura tantissimo e non si riesce a distogliere l'attenzione dal libro se non avessi avuto un esame pesante l'avrei finito in un giorno senza rimorso. Sono spesso scoppiata a ridere come una scema xD Ma ma ma un enorme stratosferico MA! Il finale!
Jul 09, Carmen Bruni rated it it was amazing. Ma cosa succede quando suddetto ragazzo ti lascia su due piedi? E non solo Bellissimo, divertente, fresco e coinvolgente. Mi sono ritrovata nei suoi atteggiamenti, nelle sue insicurezze e anche nei suoi pensieri. Ho amato le descrizioni vivide, rendevano i personaggi reali, era come averli davanti in tutte le loro sfumature.
In questo libro si ride, si sogna, si piange. Si ama. Una lettura frizzante come l'estate, da non perdere! Giulia is blonde. Questo film dura due ore.
This film lasts two hours. However the grammatical subject of the verb may be different from the real subject or agent of the action. This is the case with passive constructions see Persons of the verb The different forms of the verb, determined by its grammatical subject, are called the persons this is a purely grammatical term, not necessarily referring to human beings : 2. The different endings immediately identify the 'person' - the subject of the action - unlike in English where only the third person singular has a distinctive ending T eat, you eat, he eats'.
How old are you? Ho trent'anni. I am thirty. Using a subject pronoun to refer to the third person is often unnecessary where the person or thing has already been mentioned: Quanti anni ha Maria? How old is Maria? Ha venticinque anni. She is twenty-five. Verb conjugations The fact that Italian verbs have a pattern of six distinct verb endings in each of the tenses creates a large number of different forms of the same verb almost a hundred!
Fortunately, most verbs follow common patterns of change known as conjugations. Each verb has an invariable part the 'stem' , which carries its meaning, and an inflected part the 'ending' which identifies the person, the tense, the mood, and other features. The regular conjugation patterns are shown in the verb tables below 2. Traditionally we distinguish three conjugations defined by the form that the verb takes in the infinitive the infinitive is the form used in dictionary entries : 1st conjugation ending in -are as parl-are 'to speak' 2nd conjugation ending in -ere as cred-ere 'to believe' 3rd conjugation ending in -ire as dorm-ire 'to sleep' The verbs of the 3rd conjugation ending in -ire follow two distinct patterns, the second of which, with endings in -isco, as in fin-ire Ifm-isco 'to finish', is the most frequent.
Both patterns, however, are considered as belonging to the same conju- gation, because of the -ire ending of the infinitive. Moods and tenses Moods The different forms and uses of Italian verbs are traditionally grouped in seven moods. These convey the different characteristics of the actions or facts that the speaker or writer wants to communicate: certainty or doubt, politeness or straightforwardness, command, etc. The ways in which moods are used to express distinct communicative functions and mean- ings are illustrated in Part B. Tenses The word tense denotes the different verb forms that indicate the relationship between the action or event referred to and the time of speaking or writing or other refer- ence point in time.
There is a range of different tenses for each mood of verbs except the imperative. In Italian, different tenses are sometimes used to distinguish features of verbs other than time relationships. For example, perfect and imperfect tenses can express the aspect of the action see Chapter 13 , while different subjunctive and conditional tenses can express different degrees of doubt, possibility, politeness, etc.
Simple and compound tenses Many tenses of Italian verbs are formed using the past participle of the main verb along with either avere or essere as the auxiliary verb. These are called compound tenses. One major area of difficulty for students of Italian is knowing which verbs use avere in compound tenses and which use essere.
In order to be able to do this, it is useful to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs see 2. All passive forms of verbs see 2. There may be a direct object as in: Lucia scrive una lettera. Cerchiamo una casa. Lucia writes a letter. We look for a house. Here the action of the verb can be completed by answering the question che cosa? The direct object of the verb is the noun that can answer this question without the use of a preposition in this case una lettera and una casa : Che cosa scrive Lucia?
Lucia scrive una lettera. Che cosa cerchiamo? What is Lucia writing? Lucia is writing a letter. What are we looking for? We're looking for a house. The train to Naples left at 6. Because it determines their different uses, especially in the compound tenses, knowing whether verbs are transitive or intransitive is very important.
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Check by either looking in a dictionary or seeing whether you can ask and answer the question che cosa? In dictionaries all verb entries carry the following indications: v. Problems arise also from the fact that many English verbs used transitively and intransitively have an Italian counterpart that can only be used intransitively. Below we show some examples of English phrases that cannot be translated directly into Italian, since the verbs camminare, volare, guidare and viaggiare are not gener- ally used transitively: I'm going to walk the dog.
Fly me! Can you drive me home? Travel the world with Airmiles! Verbs that can be used both transitively and intransitively Some verbs can be used both transitively with a direct object and intransitively without a direct object , for example aumentare, cambiare, cominciare, crescere, diminuire, finire and passare.
In the first two examples that follow, the subjects of these actions - beginning and finishing - are people and the verbs have direct objects 'the lesson', 'the holidays'. II professore comincia la lezione alle The teacher begins the lesson at Finiamo le vacanze in agosto. We finish our holidays in August. In the next two examples below , the same verbs this time with 'the lesson' and 'the holidays' as subject cannot have a direct object: Lucia ha scritto una lettera.
Abbiamo cercato una casa. Lucia wrote a letter. We looked for a house. Andiamo in ufficio alle 9. II treno per Napoli parte alle 6. Siamo andate in ufficio alle 9. We go to the office at 9. The train to Naples leaves at 6. We went to the office at 9. La lezione comincia alle The lesson begins at The holidays finish in August. In simple tenses, the forms of the verbs are identical, whether transitive or intran- sitive.
But the compound tenses, such as the past, vary according to whether they are used transitively or intransitively: II professore ha cominciato la lezione. The teacher began the lesson. La lezione e cominciata alle The lesson began at Abbiamo finito le vacanze in agosto. We finished the holidays in August.
Le vacanze sono finite in agosto. The holidays finished in August. When used transitively, verbs such as correre 'to run', saltare 'to jump', vivere to live' take avere: Hanno corso un grosso rischio. They ran a great risk. Oggi ho saltato il pranzo. Today I skipped lunch. Ho vissuto una vita d'inferno. I have lived a life of hell. I lived in London for 10 years. Giuliana ran home. The children jumped down from the bed. Verbs like these are marked in dictionaries as v.
Verbs using the auxiliary avere even when used intransitively Generally Italian transitive verbs use the auxiliary avere, while intransitive verbs use the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses. However, there are quite a few verbs that use the auxiliary avere even when used intransitively. Here are the most common: camminare dormire giocare passeggiare to walk to sleep to play to walk piangere riposare viaggiare to cry to rest to travel Ho camminato per due ore. I walked for two hours. General features of verbs Come hai dormito?
How did you sleep? Avete giocato a carte? Did you play cards? Voice: active, passive, reflexive 21 Introduction 'Voice' describes the relationship of the verb action with its subject and object. The different voices or relationships are: a Active voice Normally see 2. Gianni watches Luisa. II meccanico ripara la macchina. The mechanic repairs the car. Luisa is watched by Gianni. La macchina e riparata dal meccanico. The car is repaired by the mechanic. In the second example, the agent of the action is clearly the mechanic the one who repairs the car , but the grammatical subject of the passive verb is the car.
Gianni looks at himself in the mirror. There are other verb forms that are not strictly speaking reflexive but are similar in form. The passive form The passive of Italian verbs is formed by the use of the past participle and the auxil- iary essere, using the same tense as the corresponding active form. The passive conjugation of verbs is shown in the verb tables in 2.
The passive can also be formed using venire or andare as auxiliary instead of essere see Only transitive verbs can have a passive form see 2. Passive sentences sentences based on a passive verb are used when we want to focus on the action itself or the object of an action, rather than on the agent of an action. For more examples on the use of the passive, see VERBS The reflexive and pronominal form Reflexive verb forms Reflexive verbs are active verb forms accompanied by a reflexive pronoun see 3.
Look at these two examples: II Sig. Franchi sta lavando la macchina. Mr Franchi is washing the car. II Sig. Franchi si sta lavando. Mr Franchi is washing himself. In the first example above, the direct object of the action of washing is the car. It is separate from the person who is doing it the subject of the action. In the second example, the subject and the object of the action are the same person II Sig. This is the reflexive form, in which the reflexive pronoun refers to the person carrying out the action, but at the same time is also the object of it. The position of the reflexive pronoun is the same as that of all other unstressed personal pronouns see 3.
Please, have a seat make yourself comfortable. In genere i giovani italiani si vestono alia moda. In general young people in Italy dress fashionably. Sono le 9. Dovete prepararvi ad uscire. It's 9. You must prepare yourselves to go out. Preparari ad uscire! Get yourself ready to go out! In the compound tenses, reflexive verbs are conjugated with the verb essere, even though the verbs are transitive cf. The past participle has to agree with the subject: Stamattina i bambini si sono alzati alle 6.
This morning the children got themselves up at 6. Mi sono vestita con calma. I got dressed slowly. Pronominal verb forms Pronominal verb forms are verb forms which use the reflexive pronoun. In Italian they are used much more frequently than in English because we can use them not only in a true reflexive pattern, but also in many other ways. In true reflexives see above , the subject and object of the verb are one and the same.
Although this is not the case with pronominal verb forms, they still embody the concept of 'reci- procal' or 'reflexive' action an action relating or reflecting back to the subject. The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below. Note the use of the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses: Giulio si lava le mani.
Giulio washes his hands. Mi metto la giacca. I put on my jacket. Stamattina non mi sono fatto la barba.
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This morning I didn't shave myself. In the examples above, the actions are not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio. In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba. The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani.
Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani. Mario and Nicoletta are getting married tomorrow. Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other? Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna. We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two people are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action.
The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta. Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta. Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria? Where did you meet Maria? Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Tonight we'll watch a nice film. Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I'm hungry! I really want a pizza! Mi sono dimenticata le chiavi! I forgot the keys! In the examples above, the objects of the verbs are totally separate from, and not part of, the subjects. However the use of the reflexive pronoun shows the intensity felt by the people carrying out these actions.
The same sentences can be expressed without using the reflexive pronouns, but then the statements will sound much less emotional, more objective: Stasera vediamo un bel film. Voglio mangiare una pizza. Ho dimenticato le chiavi.
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There are a few Italian verbs that are always or almost always used with a reflexive pronoun, because of the 'psychological' and subjective meaning they convey, for example: accorgersi to realise, to be aware arrabbiarsi to get angry divertirsi to have fun innamorarsi to fall in love pentirsi to regret, repent vergognarsi to be ashamed Sbrigati! Non ti accorgi che e tardi? Hurry up! Don't you realise that it's late?
Non arrabbiarri! Don't be angry! Vi siete divertiti a Roma? Did you have a good time in Rome? Giulia si e pentita di aver accettato quel lavoro. Giulia regretted having accepted that job. Non vergognarri di questo errore, non e colpa tua. Don't be ashamed of this mistake. It's not your fault. Verb tables 2. Italian is spoken. Nella mia famiglia si parlano tre lingue. In my family three languages are spoken. Dal terrazzo si vedono i tetti della citta. From the terrace the roofs of the city can be seen one can see the roofs.
In the first example, the si passivante form appears identical to the si imper- sonate form 'one' speaks Italian described in 2. However, when there is a plural subject, as in the second two examples, the verb is plural, so it becomes clear that the construction is passive 'three languages are spoken', 'the roofs can be seen'. Impersonal si The pronoun si is also used to express the impersonal form of verbs see also One works better in cool weather. Stasera si va a ballare. Tonight everybody is going to dance.
A tavola non si invecchia. One doesn't get old at the dinner table. Popular saying, meant to discourage people from hurrying when eating Notice that the impersonal form is always formed with si and the third person singular of the verb. Verb tables All the examples shown in the tables in 2. Certain verbs use essere instead see 2. The simpli- fied tables in 2. Regular verbs: active conjugations Here are the complete conjugations of four very common Italian verbs.
We call these patterns regular because the stems of these verbs remain constantly the same or invari- able throughout the whole system of moods and tenses. Understanding the way the endings the variable part of the verb change, will allow us to learn all the possible forms of most Italian verbs.
Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the most frequent. Notice how each passive tense is formed by the corresponding tense of the auxil- iary essere see below 2. In this table the participle is masculine singular, but in actual use it agrees with gender and number of the subject see below , as do all compound forms of verbs using essere. Italian has a large number of irregular verbs, most of them in the 2nd conjugation, including many verbs frequently used in everyday language.
Sometimes the irregular changes of the stem are unique to one verb as in the case of avere and essere. Sometimes several verbs may be grouped under a common pattern of irregularity, and this can help to memorise the many but not always unpredictable deviations from the 'norm'. The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. These verbs have been chosen not only because of their frequency of use, but also because in some cases their patterns are followed by several other irregular verbs.
A complete list of irregular verbs in alphabetical order is in Appendix II. VERBS 2. They share a common feature: they are often used in combination with another verb. The verbs avere 'to have' see When used in this way, they are called verbi servili 'modal verbs'. Ieri ho dovuto chiudere io l'ufficio. I had to lock the office, yesterday. Quando potremo incontrare il Dott. When can we meet Dr Salvi? Voglio tornare a casa presto stasera. I want to go home early tonight. The verb essere is highly irregular, with varied stems in almost all tenses.
Avere, dovere, potere, volere also have varying stems in their present indicative tenses, but a common pattern of contraction in their future and present conditional tense with the vowel -e- dropping to give the the future forms av-ro, dov-ro, etc. In the tables below, note how the compound tenses of essere take essere as their auxiliary, and the participle has to agree in number and gender. Infinitive Infinito Present Presente av-ere ess-ere dov-ere pot-ere vol-ere Past Passato avere avuto essere stato avere dovuto avere potuto avere voluto Indicative Indicativo Present Presente ho son-o dev-o debbo poss-o vogli-o hai se-i dev-i puo-i vuo-i ha e dev-e pud vuol-e abb-iamo s-iamo dobb-iamo poss-iamo vogl-iamo av-ete si-ete dov-ete pot-ete vol-ete hanno s-ono dev-ono debbono poss-ono vogli-ono Imperfect Imperfetto av-evo ero dov-evo pot-evo vol-evo av-evi eri dov-evi pot-evi vol-evi av-eva era dov-eva pot-eva vol-eva Verb tables 2.
Infinitive mood infinito The infinitive is the basic form of verbs, and the one used as dictionary entry in other words, the name of the verb. It is the infinitive form -are, -ere, -ire or -rre that tells us which conjugation a verb belongs to. The infinitive has a present and a past tense. The past is formed by the past participle and the infinitive avere or essere.
When formed with essere, the past infinitive changes form to agree with the verb subject see examples below. In their present indicative, these verbs follow the -go pattern shown below 2. We must leave at 7. Sai usare il computer? Can you use the computer? Penso di avere capito. I think I have understood. Non riesco a sentire la tua voce. I can't hear your voice. In most cases the infinitive is linked to preceding verbs by a preposition such as di or a as in the last two examples above see list of verbs and prepositions in Appendix IV.
However with the verbs potere, dovere, volere, sapere, preferire, desiderare, amare, osare, no preposition is needed. For particular uses of infinitive with a prepo- sition, see 4. In Italian the subject of the infinitive must be the same as that of the verb on which it depends.
Otherwise two separate finite verbs must be used, usually linked by che. An exception to this is when the main verb of the clause is fare or lasciare see also Let me pass. Lasciali parlare. Let them speak. Ho fatto entrare i signori. I allowed the gentlemen to come in.
Infinitive as imperative: The infinitive can be used by itself, without depending on another verb, when it is used to tell somebody not to do something, i. Be quiet, don't speak. Non sporgersi dal finestrino. Don't lean out of the window. Note how a phrase that was originally the imperative of a verb used reflexively non ti scordare 'do not forget' has now become the name of a flower: Nontiscordardime Forget-me-not Moods and tenses of verbs Infinitive as a noun: Infinitive verbs are often used instead of nouns, sometimes preceded by the definite article, in the masculine singular form: Lavorare stanca.
Work is tiring. Mangiare e necessario per vivere. Eating is necessary for life. II sapere degli antichi si trasmette di generazione in generazione. The wisdom of the ancients is handed down from generation to generation. For further uses of the infinitive and past infinitive, see also Indicative mood: introduction The indicative mood is used to express straightforward statements of facts, objec- tive descriptions, real and definite situations, etc.
We shall look here at the eight tenses of the indicative mood, both regular and irregular forms, with a brief refer- ence to their use, covered in detail in Part B. Present indicative jndicativo presente The forms of the present indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2. In addition to avere, essere, dovere, potere, volere shown in the verb tables above, some common verbs with irregular present indicative are illustrated below. Irregular present indicatives: 1st conjugation Some verbs in the 1st conjugation present potential difficulties with spelling.
These are the regular verbs ending in -care, -gare, such as cercare, pagare: In those forms that include i cerchi, cerchiamo , the h indicates the pronuncia- tion with hard g: cercare 'to look for' pagare 'to pay' cerco cerchi cerca cerchiamo cercate cercano pago paghi paga paghiamo pagate pagano In the verbs ending in -ciare and -giare, the i before letters o, a indicates the soft c or g and is not pronounced as a separate vowel. There is no doubling of the i in the second person singular and first person plural forms: cominciare 'to begin' mangiare 'to eat' comincio mangio cominci mangi comincia mangia cominciawo mangiamo cominciate mangiate cominciano mangiano VERBS 2.
Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but are based on an older form of the infini- tive see 2. The following verbs have in common a pattern in which some persons are formed with g and some without see Appendix II for a complete list. Verbs following the pattern of porre are: imporre 'to impose'; proporre 'to propose'; supporre 'to suppose'; etc. Other verbs following its pattern are: avvenire 'to happen'; divenire 'to become'; rinvenire 'to find'; svenire 'to faint'; etc.
VERBS Uses of the present indicative Verbs in the present indicative express actions, facts and situations that happen or are going on at the moment when we speak or write. This applies to: a Actions and facts happening at the precise moment of speech: Mara, il telefono suona. Rispondi, per favore. Mara, the phone is ringing. Please answer it! In my office the phone rings continuously in the mornings. La domenica le campane della chiesa suonano alle 8 meno On Sundays the church bells ring at 10 to 8.
Gli Italiani fumano piu degli inglesi. Italians smoke more than English people. Le balene sono mammiferi. Whales are mammals. There are two situations in which the present indicative is used to refer to facts that are not in the present time: c Referring to the future, as happens frequently in conversational situations see Tomorrow the Spanish guests are coming.
L'anno prossimo compriamo una macchina nuova. Next year we'll buy a new car. This is done when the events are described in a narrative way and is very common in history books and news reports: Nel Roma diventa capitale dTtalia. Rome became the capital of Italy in Al quinto rigore Baggio sbaglia e l'ltalia perde il Campionato del Mondo. At the fifth penalty Baggio missed the penalty kick and Italy lost the World Cup. Several verbs have an irregular future indicative.
A similar contracted pattern can be seen in the present tense of the conditional of the same verbs andare andrei , bere berrei , potere potrei. The future of essere is very irregular: sard, sarai, sara, etc. Uses of the future The future indicative tense is naturally mainly used to refer to facts that will happen in a time subsequent to the time when we speak. However Italians use this tense sparingly, often preferring to use the present tense instead see The future tense is also used in Italian to express probability, as in English 'it will be.
Saranno le tre meno dieci. What time is it? It must be about ten to three. Suona il telefono. Chi saral Sara Davide. The phone is ringing. Who could it possibly be? It will be Davide. Future perfect futuro anteriore Forms The future perfect is a compound tense formed of the future tense of the auxiliary avere or essere together with the past participle of the verb. The forms of the future perfect are shown in the verb tables 2.
Uses of the future perfect The future perfect is used to indicate facts or actions that will take place in the future in relation to the moment when we are speaking or writing , but before facts or actions that will happen even later; it is a sort of 'past in the future': Non so se avro finito il lavoro quando arrivera il cliente. I don't know whether I will have finished the job by the time the customer comes. Stiamo aspettando la fattura. Quando avremo ricevuto la fattura, Le invieremo i soldi. We are waiting for the invoice. When we've received the invoice, we'll send you the money.
Each of the three verbs in these two sentences could be illustrated by a time sequence: now future perfect future non so avro finito arrivera stiamo aspettando avremo ricevuto invieremo VERBS 2. More examples of the use of the future perfect can be found in